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Books and readers топик. Топик по английскому языку "книги"

Books surround us. They appeared ages ago and took different forms. The oldest form is probably the roll (30-40 centuries B.C.). It appeared in Ancient Egypt, and was as well used in Ancient Greece. The Egyptians used papyrus, brush and red and black ink to draw hieroglyphs, which at first meant things and animals and then started to mean sounds. There were more than 700 of hieroglyphs! Champollion, a French scientist, solved the riddle of these signs with"the help of Rosetta Stone on which there was a text in Egyptian and in Greek. Another ancient form was codex where pages were put one on another. The form of codex w as used in Mesopotamia (where the pages were made of clay), Rome and other countries. The Chinese invented paper, before this important invention people used different materials, mostly skins of animals. The books were copied by hand and cost a whole fortune. Later the printing press was invented so the books became popular and rather cheap. The first primed book was produced in Korea in the 8th century. In China the priming press began to work in the 11th century, in Europe - in the 15th century. There are many genres of books around us. They can be divided into fiction and non-fiction books. Non-fiction books contain real information and are used for education and work. They are reference books, dictionaries, atlases, biographies and autobiographies, scientific reports, textbooks and encyclopaedias. In reference books as well as in encyclopaedias you can find facts about different objects and famous people, about countries and animals. At school we use dictionaries to learn the meanings of words. Biographies are a good source of information. Sometimes they can also be a pleasant reading. Fot example, the biography of Moliere by Bulgakov, or of Tchaikovsky by Nina Berberova. Historical books describe different epochs and reigns of kings and queens. Fiction books are written to give pleasure. They are also called belles-lettres. This word is mostly used when we speak about stories, novels and romances. «War and Peace» by Leo Tolstoy is an example of fiction. But the young usually prefer fantasy books and science fiction. The difference between them is the following: fantasy books usually describe the events and countries in the form of a legend and narrate about the past. A good example of fantasy is «Conan the Barbarian»; science fiction books describe events in the future, the characters and places are given as imaginary and usually take place in the future. «Starship Troopers» by Heinlein, «Stainless Steel Rat» by Harry Harrison are examples of the style. I myself like science fiction most of all. My favourite science fiction book is «Starship troopers». The author of the book is Robert Heinlein. It has been filmed, but I don"t like the film, which is very primitive. The plot of the book, on the contrary, is complex and there are many philosophical ideas built in the sequence of fantastical events and surroundings. The main character of the book is a boy named Johnny. The boy joins the army, because of his love to a girl who wants to be a pilot. But through the book his character and understanding of the situation changes. He understands what it means to be a citizen of the state, to bi responsible for your decisions. While in the army, he understands that only a man who can forget his own interests for the sake of his Motherland is a real citizen. I think, this idea is vital now in our country. I have read many science fiction books by Russian and foreign authors. At the end of the book he is an officer who understands his duty. But my favourite fiction book is «Gone with the Wind». It was written by Margaret Mitchell. Her father was the President of the Atlanta Historical Society. You know, Atlanta was one of the important cities in the South. Since her childhood the girl had heard stories about the Civil War between the North and the South. When the girl grew up and got married, she decided to write down those stories. So, she wrote «Gone with the wind». The book was published for the first time in 1936. It was a great success and the next year it got the Pulitzer Prize. In 1939 the book was filmed. I like the book because it has several levels of composition. The first level is the love story - the main character, Scarlett O"Hara, loves Ashley Wilkes, but marries for money another man, Rhett Butler. By the end of the book she understands that she and Rhett are alike and have much in common, that she loves Rhett. But Rhett leaves her, and we can only guess if she can get him back. The second level is the description of the strong characters oi" the Southerners. Scarlett, a daughter of a rich planter, goes to the field and works as a slave when it is needed. Ashley, so quiet and gentle, goes to the war and fights well and bravely. In difficult situations of my life 1 think that they suffered more, but survived. So, this book helps me to go through the difficulties of my life. The third level of the book is the atmosphere of the Southern way of life. On the first page we can read the description of the Tarlton twins. When they are compared, the author does not use the usual English expression «as two peas»; she says that they were as two cotton bolls. Margaret Mitchell describes a planter"s house and his life routine. The fourth level is the events of the Civil War between the North and the South, and the post-war life. This is very useful, if you want to understand the modern differences between the northern and the southern states in nowadays America. I like the book so much that when the sequel was published, I made my mother buy it. We all have read it, but did not like much. Sequels are usually worse than the first books.

Reading plays a very important role in the life of people. It educates a person, enriches his intellect. Books help to mould a person"s character, from his moral values. Besides, books bring pleasure and delight. It"s a wonderful way of spending spare time. Sometimes we read the same book again and again.

Thanks to books we learn to express our thoughts and feelings more exactly. The book is faithful and understanding friend. It can be put aside and taken up again at any moment. There are books which have been our favorites since childhood.

People are fond of reading different kinds of books. Some people enjoy reading detective stories, adventure stories, novels, biographies, other prefer classics. Fairy tales are enjoyed and read by children, books about adventures and journeys are enjoyed by those who are fond of travelling. Legends and myths are read by those who are fond of history. Some people developed much time to reading books and reading becomes their free time occupation, their passion.

Throughout the centuries books had an enormous influence on the minds and hearts of people. Books bind together ages, personalities. Thanks to books we can talk to people who lived in different countries and ages. Through reading books we hear their voices, thoughts and feelings.

The book is the surest way to bring nations together. It helps people achieve understanding, trust, cooperation and friendship. Books awaken the young reader"s imagination. They develop literary taste, arouse interest and curiosity, the reader"s laugher as well as his tears. They teach the readers to be truthful, friendly, honest decisive, conscientious, frank, firm, fair and serious.

Libraries play an important part in the cultural development of people. People like reading, they have a desire learn they seek a knowledge. Books sat this desire. There are a lot of books in our country, in our flats. But it is difficult to buy all the books which we want to read. That is why we get books in public libraries.

Books shouldn"t be read only by pleasure. Reading books helps us in our education. We can fond all kinds of books in the libraries. Books offer romance history adventure, autobiographers science fiction and humor in the form of short stories and novels, poetry, prose and plays as well as reference books, encyclopaedias, dictionaries and so on.

In some libraries we can find books in many foreign languages. When a reader comes to a library for the first time he feels in library card and the librarian helps to chose something to read. The reader is allowed to borrow books for a certain number of days. The catalogues help the reader to find the books and not damage them in any way. Readers come to the reading rooms to study and prepare materials for their reports or for their scientific work.

Reading plays a very important role in the life of people. It educates a person, enriches his intellect. Books help to mould a person"s character, form his moral values. Besides, books bring pleasure and delight. It"s a wonderful way to spend spare time. Sometimes we read the same book again and again. Thanks to books we learn to express our thoughts and feelings more exactly. The book is a faithful and understanding friend. It can be put aside and taken up again at any moment. There are books which have been our favorites since childhood. People are fond of reading different kinds of books. Some people enjoy reading detective stories, adventure stories, novels, biographies, other prefer classics. Fairy tales are enjoyed and read by children, books about adventures and journeys are enjoyed by those who are fond of travelling. Legends and myths are read by those who are fond of history. Some people developed much time to reading books and reading becomes their free time occupation, their passion.

Through out the centuries books had an enormous influence on the minds and hearts of people. Books bind together ages, personalities. Thanks to books we can talk to people who lived in different countries and ages. Through reading books we hear their voices, thoughts and feelings. The book is the surest way to bring nations together. It helps people achieve understanding, trust, cooperation and friendship. Books awaken young readers" imagination. They develop literary taste, arouse interest and curiosity, the reader"s laugher as well as his tears. They teach the readers to be truthful, friendly, honest decisive, conscientious, frank, firm, fair and serious.

Libraries play an important part in the cultural development of people. People like reading, they have a desire to learn, they seek for knowledge. Books sate this desire. There are a lot of books in our country, in our flats. But it is difficult to buy all the books which we want to read. That is why we get books in public libraries. Books shouldn"t be read only for pleasure. Reading books helps us in our education. We can fond all kinds of books in the libraries. Books offer romance, history, adventure, autobiographies, science fiction and humor in the form of shot stories and novels, poetry, prose and plays as well as reference books, encyclopaedias, dictionaries and so on. In some libraries we can find books in many foreign languages. When a reader comes to a library for the first time he fills in his library card and the librarian helps him to choose something to read. The reader is allowed to borrow books for a certain number of days. The catalogues help the reader to find the books. We should not make notes in library books or dog"s ears in the pages. The reading rooms in the public libraries are open to all who wish to work there. Except books we can get periodical newspapers and magazines to read there. Readers come to reading rooms to study and prepare materials for their reports or for their scientific work.

Every school in our country has a library. A school library is a collection of textbooks and books for reading. Our pupils and teachers go there to read, to find some magazines or newspapers or to prepare for a report. Sometimes teachers prepare for lessons at our school library.

To begin with, I would like to point out that it is quite hard to imagine our life without books. Moreover, books are our constant friends at different stages of life. We read our first stories and fairy-tales in childhood. We could not put the book down at school when we were very much interested in breath-taking adventures taking place on the pages of our favourite novels. Needless to say, even now books help us to get ready for different kinds of exams and tests, because they can present much useful information.

Even though it may seem that the Internet and television are taking over, the role of books in our lives cannot be underestimated. Reading helps to change our viewpoint. Due to classic books, we can distinguish between the right and the wrong.

Перевод

Сначала я бы хотела обратить внимание на то, что достаточно сложно представить нашу жизнь без книг. Более того, книги являются нашими верными друзьями на различных этапах жизни. В детстве мы читаем наши первые истории и сказки. В школе мы не могли отложить книгу в сторону, когда мы были увлечены чтением захватывающих приключений на страницах наших любимых произведений. Само самой, разумеется, даже сейчас книги помогают нам подготовиться к различным тестам и экзаменам, так как они могут дать нам много полезной информации. И даже, когда, кажется, что интернет и телевидение затмили их, нельзя недооценивать роль книг в нашей жизни. Чтение помогает нам изменить нашу точку зрения. Благодаря классике, мы умеем отличие добро от зла. Чтение помогает нам расти духовно. Также начитанный человек может похвастаться своей эрудицией. Например, исторические произведения могут помочь нам вспомнить многие исторические события, нам это может пригодиться на уроках истории. Пожалуй, также можно добавить, что при чтении книги, вы можете совместить приятное с полезным. По правде говоря, люди, которые много читаю, всегда имеют большое преимущество перед людьми, которые читают меньше.

Что касается меня, то, сколько я себя помню, книги занимают одну из главных ролей в моей жизни. Я обожаю классическую литературу и таких авторов, как Шекспир Диккенс и Селенджер. Их истории показывают нам, что такое храбрость и честность, любовь и настоящая дружба, товарищество и доброта. Я верю, что наше общество не могло быть таким без историй о Ромео и Джульетты и Дориана Грэя. Также стоить добавить, что я люблю читать короткие истории просто так. Книги могут быть очень занимательными и увлекательными. Я глубоко уверена, что книги являются настоящим хранилищем мудрости.

Хотите выучить английский язык? То записывайтесь на бесплатный пробный урок по скайпу. Дистанционное изучение английского языка по скайпу является одним из самый удобных и эффективных способов.

Books can fit almost every need, temper, or interest. Books can be read when you are in the mood; they don"t have to be taken in periodic doses. Books are more personal and more impersonal than professors. Books have an inner confidence which individuals seldom show; they rarely have to be on the defensive. Books can afford to be bold, and courageous, and explanatory; they don"t have to be so careful of boards of trustees, colleagues, and community opinion. Books are infinitely diverse; they run the gamut of human activity. Books can express every point of view; if you want a different point of view, you can read a different book. Reading is probably the most important skill you will need for success in your studies. You will have to read lengthy assignments in different subjects with varying degrees of detail and difficulty. If you read inaccurately, you will fail to understand some of the information and ideas you read. If you read slowly, you will have to spend too much time reading your assignments so that your other work may suffer.Poor reading may be a problem for you, but it is not a hopeless one. Like other skills your ability to read English rapidly and accurately will depend upon a careful instruction and purposeful practice. You must continue practising on your own to improve your reading skill.Reading speed is determined in part by how many words your eyes can see at a single glance. Here is a comparison of three different readers and how many stops their eyes make.

Slow Reader:Being | able | to read | by phrases | instead of | by single | words | results | from | practice.Average Reader:Being able | to read | by phrases | instead of | by single words | results | from practice.Fast Reader:Being able to read by phrases і instead of by single words і results from practice.

Notice that the slow reader"s eyes must stop fourteen times, focusing on each word alone before they move on to the next. The eyes of the average reader stop six or seven times because they are able to see about two words at a single glance. The eyes of the fast reader stop only three times. They focus at the center of a phrase and see three or four words, then move rapidly to the next phrase. This ability to see words on either side of the point at which your eyes focus is called peripheral vision. As a foreign student of English, you may feel that it is impossible to recognize so many words at a single glance. It is difficult for many native speakers, but it can be done - and must be done if you are to read as rapidly as you should. You can increase your peripheral vision by eye exercises.

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